So, you want to find out about the rest of your chart. It's easy. The first step is to enter the data, and get your chart from the generator here. In this program, there's some information below the chart about your Sun, Moon, Mercury and so on. That's one way to find out about your chart, and there are a lot of great sites out there that give you expert analysis just by entering your birth data.
The symbols on the chart, and their placement, are the visual version of having it all written out. This is the English actress Kate Winslet's chart. The Sun glyph tells us that she's a Libra, and that her Sun is at the Ascendant, both are at 11 degrees. We get that from the 11 next to the Sun, and at the middle left of the wheel, which is the ASC.
Here are the glyphs for the signs and planets.